Generally speaking, law refers to rules and regulations enforceable by social institutions. Law is a set of rules that governs human behavior, and often shapes economics, politics, and history. Laws may be divided into common law, civil law, and international law.
Common law is a legal system that has been specifically designed to acknowledge judicial decisions as “law”. In this legal system, a judicial decision binds the lower courts. This is known as the doctrine of precedent. In addition, this legal system has an explicit acknowledgement of the decisions of the executive branch, which is known as the doctrine of federalism.
Civil law is a legal system that has been designed to minimize the time it takes for judicial decisions to be made. This type of legal system usually has fewer judicial decisions and requires less human elaboration.
International law can refer to the law of supranational organisations, public international law, or private international law. International law also refers to the law of international conflicts.
The International Law Commission is an organization that promotes progressive development of international law. It was created by the United Nations General Assembly in 1947 and is composed of 34 members, representing the world’s main legal systems. They advise the General Assembly on substantive legal matters, prepare drafts on aspects of international law, and consult with UN specialized agencies.
The International Court of Justice is the primary United Nations dispute settlement organ. It has considered over 170 cases, and has issued advisory opinions and judgments.