Technology has brought many advantages to the human race, from medical breakthroughs and an improved economy to streamlined everyday tasks. However, there are also some disadvantages that can come with technological advancements – like mass surveillance and automation of jobs.
Whether good or bad, it is important to understand how technology works. Technology is the rational process of creating means to order and transform matter, energy and information to realize valued ends. Technology consists of both the tools and systems that make this order and transformation possible, as well as the knowledge that makes it all work.
Most of the time, technological development is a step-by-step process. It is rare for a scientific discovery to be immediately turned into useful technology, and even apparently promising technologies often stall at certain points in their development. This is because the development of new technological devices and methods is complicated and expensive, and it takes a long time to overcome technical obstacles.
Moreover, new technology must be compatible with existing technological systems. This compatibility imposes constraints that must be taken into account in the design process. Some of these constraints are purely practical (like the limits of current materials and manufacturing techniques) while others are ethical, ecological, or social. The goal is to create a technology that is as compatible as possible with the existing system while meeting the desired end.
Throughout history, philosophical debates have centered on whether or not the development of technology improves the human condition. Some philosophies, such as neo-Luddism and anarcho-primitivism, criticize the pervasiveness of technology by claiming that it harms the environment and alienates people; conversely, ideologies like transhumanism and techno-progressivism support continued technological progress.